Design - Construction - Operation and Repair
A complete, practical treatise outlining clearly the elements of internal combustion engineering with special reference to the design, construction, operation and repair of airplane power plants; also the auxiliary engine systems, such as lubrication, carburetion, ignition and cooling. It includes complete instructions for engine repairing and systematic location of troubles, tool equipment and use of tools, also outlines the latest mechanical processes.
BY VICTOR W. PAGE
NEW YORK, THE NORMAN W. HENLEY PUBLISHING COMPANY, 1918
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Contains valuable instructions for all aviation students, mechanicians, squadron engineering officers and all interested in the construction and upkeep of airplane power plants.
In presenting this treatise on "Aviation Engines," the writer realizes that the rapidly developing art makes it difficult to outline all latest forms or describe all current engineering practice. This exposition has been prepared primarily for instruction purposes and is adapted for men in the Aviation Section, Signal Corps, and students who wish to become aviators or aviation mechanicians. Every effort has been made to have the engineering information accurate, but owing to the diversity of authorities consulted and use of data translated from foreign language periodicals, it is expected that some slight errors will be present. The writer wishes to ac- knowledge his indebtedness to such firms as the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Co., Hall-Scott Company, Thomas Morse Aircraft Corporation and General Vehicle Company for photographs and helpful descriptive matter. Special attention has been paid to instructions on tool equipment, use of tools, trouble "shooting" and engine repairs, as it is on these points that the average aviation student is weakest. Only such theoretical consideration of thermo-dynamics as was deemed absolutely necessary to secure a proper understanding of engine action after consulting several instructors is included, the writer's efforts having been confined to the preparation of a practical series of instructions that would be of the greatest value to those who need a diversified knowledge of internal combustion engine operation and repair, and who must acquire it quickly. The engines, described and illustrated are all practical forms that have been fitted to airplanes capable of making flights and may be considered fairly representative of the present state of the art.
Brief Consideration of Aircraft Types - Essential Requirements of Aerial Motors - Aviation Engines Must Be Light - Factors Influencing Power Needed - Why Explosive Motors Are Best - Historical - Main Types of Internal Combustion Engines
Operating Principles of Two and Four-Stroke Engines - Four-cycle Action - Two cycle Action - Comparing Two and Four-cycle Types - Theory of Gas and Gasoline Engine - Early Gas-Engine Forms - Isothermal Law - Adiabatic Law – Temperature Computations - Heat and Its Work - Conversion of Heat to Power - Requisites for Best Power Effect
Efficiency of Internal Combustion Engines - Various Measures of Efficiency - Temperatures and Pressures - Factors Governing Economy - Losses in Wall Cooling - Value of Indicator Cards - Compression in Explosive Motors - Factors Limiting Compression - Causes of Heat Losses and Inefficiency - Heat Losses to Cooling Water
Engine Parts and Functions - Why Multiple Cylinder Engines Are Best - Describing Sequence of Operations - Simple Engines - Four and Six Cylinder Vertical Tandem Engines - Eight and Twelve Cylinder V Engines - Radial Cylinder Arrangement - Rotary Cylinder Forms
Properties of Liquid Fuels - Distillates of Crude Petroleum - Principles of Carburetion Outlined - Air Needed to Burn Gasoline - What a Carburetor Should Do - Liquid Fuel Storage and Supply - Vacuum Fuel Feed - Early Vaporizer Forms - Development of Float Feed Carburetor - Maybach's Early Design - Concentric Float and Jet Type - Sehebler Carburetor - Claudel Carburetor - Stewart Metering Pin Type - Multiple Nozzle Vaporizers - Two-Stage Carburetor - Master Multiple Jet Type - Compound Nozzle Zenith Carburetor - Utility of Gasoline Strainers - Intake Manifold Design and Construction - Compensating for Various Atmospheric Conditions - How High Altitude Affects Power - The Diesel System - Notes on Carburetor Installation - Notes on Carburetor Adjustment
Early Ignition Systems - Electrical Ignition Best - Fundamentals of Magnetism Outlined - Forms of Magneto - Zones of Magnetic Influence - How Magnets are Made - Electricity and Magnetism Related - Basic Principles of Magneto Action - Essential Parts of Magneto and Functions - Transformer Coil Systems - True High Tension Type - The Berling Magneto - Timing and Care - The Dixie Magneto - Spark-Plug Design and Application - Two-Spark Ignition - Special Airplane Plug
Why Lubrication Is Necessary - Friction Defined - Theory of Lubrication - Derivation of Lubricants - Properties of Cylinder Oils - Factors Influencing Lubrication System Selection - Gnome Type Engines Use Castor Oil - Hall-Scott Lubrication System - Oil Supply by Constant Level Splash System - Dry Crank-Case System Best for Airplane Engines - Why Cooling Systems Are Necessary - Cooling Systems Generally Applied - Cooling by Positive Pump Circulation - Thermo-Syphon System - Direct Air-Cooling Methods - Air-Cooled Engine Design Considerations
Methods of Cylinder Construction - Block Castings - Influence on Crank-Shaft Design - Combustion Chamber Design - Bore and Stroke Ratio - Meaning of Piston Speed - Advantage of Off-Set Cylinders - Valve Location of Vital Import - Valve Installation Practice - Valve Design and Construction - Valve Operation - Methods of Driving Cam-Shaft - Valve Springs - Valve Timing - Blowing Back - Lead Given Exhaust Valve - Exhaust Closing, Inlet Opening - Closing the Inlet Valve - Time of Ignition - How an Engine is Timed - Gnome "Monosoupape" Valve Timing - Springless Valves - Four Valves per Cylinder
Constructional Details of Pistons - Aluminum Cylinders and Pistons - Piston Ring Construction - Leak Proof Piston Rings - Keeping Oil Out of Combustion Chamber - Connecting Rod Forms - Connecting Rods for Vee Engines - Cam-Shaft and Crank-Shaft Designs - Ball Bearing Crank-Shafts - Engine Base Construction
Power Plant Installation - Curtiss OX-2 Engine Mounting and Operating Rules - Standard S. A. E. Engine Bed Dimensions - Hall-Scott Engine Installation and Operation - Fuel System Rules - Ignition System - Water System - Preparations to Start Engine - Mounting Radial and Rotary Engines - Practical Hints to Locate Engine Troubles - All Engine Troubles Summarized - Location of Engine Troubles Made Easy
Tools for Adjusting and Erecting - Forms of Wrenches - Use and Care of Files - Split Pin Removal and Installation - Complete Chisel Set - Drilling Machines - Drills, Reamers, Taps and Dies - Measuring Tools - Micrometer Calipers and Their Use - Typical Tool Outfits - Special Hall-Scott Tools - Overhauling Airplane Engines - Taking Engine Down - Defects in Cylinders - Carbon Deposits, Cause and Prevention - Use of Carbon Scrapers - Burning Out Carbon with Oxygen - Repairing Scored Cylinders - Valve Removal and Inspection - Reseating and Truing Valves - Valve Grinding Processes - Depreciation in Valve Operating System - Piston Troubles - Piston Ring Manipulation - Fitting Piston Rings - Wrist-Pin Wear - Inspection and Refitting of Engine Bearings - Scraping Brasses to Fit - Fitting Connecting Rods - Testing for Bearing Parallelism - Cam-Shafts and Timing Gears - Precautions in Reassembling Parts
Aviation Engine Types - Division in Classes - Anzani Engines - Canton and Unne Engine - Construction of Gnome Engines – “Monosoupape” Gnome - German “Gnome” Type - Le Rhone Engine - Renault Air-Cooled Engine - Simplex Model "A" Hispano-Suiza - Curtiss Aviation Motors - Thomas-Morse Model 88 Engine - Duesenberg Engine - Aeromarine Six-Cylinder - Wisconsin Aviation Engines - Hall-Scott Engines - Mercedes Motor - Benz Motor - Austro-Daimler Engine - Sunbeam-Coatalen - Indicating and Measuring Instruments - Air Starting Systems - Electric Starting - Battery Ignition
Brief Consideration of Aircraft Types Essential Requirements of Aerial Motors Aviation Engines Must Be Light Factors Influencing Power Needed Why Explosive Motors Are. Best Historical Main Types of Internal Combustion Engines.
BRIEF CONSIDERATION OF AIRCRAFT TYPES
THE conquest of the air is one of the most stupendous achievements of the ages. Human flight opens the sky to man as a new road, and because it is a road free of all obstructions and leads everywhere, affording the shortest distance to any place, it offers to man the prospect of unlimited freedom. The aircraft promises to span continents like railroads, to bridge seas like ships, to go over mountains and forests like birds, and to quicken and simplify the problems of transportation. While the actual conquest of the air is an accomplishment just being realized in our days, the idea and yearning to conquer the air are old, possibly as old as intellect itself. The myths of different races tell of winged gods and flying men, and show that for ages to fly was the highest conception of the sublime. No other agent is more responsible for sustained flight than the internal combustion motor, and it was only when this form of prime mover had been fully developed that it was possible for man to leave the ground and alight at will, not depending upon the caprices of the winds or lifting power of gases as with the balloon. It is safe to say that the solution of the problem of flight would have been attained many years ago if the proper source of power had been available as all the essential elements of the modern aeroplane and dirigible balloon, other than the power plant, were known to early philosophers and scientists.
Aeronautics is divided into two fundamentally different branches aviatics and aerostatics. The first comprises all types of aeroplanes and heavier than air flying machines such as the helicopters, kites, etc.; the second includes dirigible balloons, passive balloons and all craft which rise in the air by utilizing the lifting force of gases. Aeroplanes are the only practical form of heavier-than-air machines, as the helicopters (machines intended to be lifted directly into the air by propellers, without the sustaining effect of planes), and ornithopters, or flapping wing types, have not been thoroughly developed, and in fact, there are so many serious mechanical problems to be solved before either of these types of aircraft will function properly that experts express grave doubts regarding the practicability of either. Aeroplanes are divided into two main types monoplanes or single surface forms, and bi-planes or machines having two sets of lifting surfaces, one suspended over the other. A third type, the triplane, is not very widely used.
Dirigible balloons are divided into three classes: the rigid, the semi-rigid, and the non-rigid. The rigid has a frame or skeleton of either wood or metal inside of the bag, to stiffen it; the semi-rigid is reinforced by a wire net and metal attachments; while the non-rigid is just a bag filled with gas. The aeroplane, more than the dirigible and balloon, stands as the emblem of the conquest of the air. Two reasons for this are that power flight is a real conquest of the air, a real victory over the battling elements; secondly, because the aeroplane, or any flying ma- chine that may follow, brings air travel within the reach of everybody. In practical development, the dirigible may be the steamship of the air, which will render invaluable services of a certain kind, and the aeroplane will be the automobile of the air, to be used by the multitude, perhaps for as many purposes as the automobile is now being used.
ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENTS OF AERIAL MOTORS
One of the marked features of aircraft development has been the effect it has had upon the refinement and perfection of the internal combustion motor. Without question gasoline-motors intended for aircraft are the nearest to perfection of any other type yet evolved. Because of the peculiar demands imposed upon the aeronautical motor it must possess all the features of reliability, economy and efficiency now present with automobile or marine engines and then must have distinctive points of its own. Owing to the unstable nature of the medium through which it is operated and the fact that heavier-than-air machines can maintain flight only as long as the power plant is functioning properly, an airship motor must be more reliable than any used on either land or water. While a few pounds of metal more or less makes practically no difference in a marine motor and has very little effect upon the speed or hill-climbing ability. of an automobile, an airship motor must be as light as it is possible to make it because every pound counts, whether the motor is to be fitted into an aeroplane or in a dirigible balloon.
Airship motors, as a rule, must operate constantly at high speeds in order to obtain a maximum power delivery with a minimum piston displacement. In automobiles, or motor boats, motors are not required to run constantly at their maximum speed. Most aircraft motors must function for extended periods at speed as nearly the maximum as possible. Another thing that militates against the aircraft motor is the more or less unsteady foundation to which it is attached. The necessarily light framework of the aeroplane makes it hard for a motor to perform at maximum efficiency on account of the vibration of its foundation while the craft is in flight. Marine and motor car engines, while not placed on foundations as firm as those provided for stationary power plants, are installed on bases of much more stability than the light structure of an aeroplane. The aircraft motor, therefore, must be balanced to a nicety and must run steadily under the most unfavorable conditions.
AERIAL MOTORS MUST BE LIGHT
The capacity of light motors designed for aerial work per unit of mass is surprising to those not fully conversant with the possibilities that a thorough knowledge of proportions of parts and the use of special metals developed by the automobile industry make possible. Activity in the development of light motors has been more pronounced in France than in any other country. Some of these motors have been complicated types made light by the skillful proportioning of parts, others are of the refined simpler form modified from current automobile practice. There is a tendency to depart from the freakish or unconventional construction and to adhere more closely to standard forms because it is necessary to have the parts of such size that every quality making for reliability, efficiency and endurance are incorporated in the design. Aeroplane motors range from two cylinders to forms having fourteen and sixteen cylinders and the arrangement of these members varies from the conventional vertical tandem and opposed placing to the V form or the more unusual radial motors having either fixed or rotary cylinders. The weight has been reduced so it is possible to obtain a complete power plant of the revolving cylinder air-cooled type that will not weigh more than three pounds per actual horse-power and in some cases less than this.
If we give brief consideration to the requirements of the aviator it will be evident that one of the most important is securing maximum power with minimum mass, and it is desirable to conserve all of the good qualities existing in standard automobile motors. These are certainty of operation, good mechanical balance and uniform delivery of power fundamental conditions which must be attained before a power plant can be considered practical. There are in addition, secondary considerations, none the less desirable, if not absolutely essential. These are minimum consumption of fuel and lubricating oil, which is really a factor of import, for upon the economy depends the capacity and flying radius. As the amount of liquid fuel must be limited the most suitable motor will be that which is powerful and at the same time economical. Another important feature is to secure accessibility of components in order to make easy repair or adjustment of parts possible. It is possible to obtain sufficiently light-weight motors without radical departure from established practice. Water-cooled power plants have been designed that will w T eigh but four or five pounds per horse-power and in these forms we have a practical power plant capable of extended operation.
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