Elements of mechanism

ELEMENTS OF MECHANISM

The scientific principles of the practical construction of machines for the use of schools, and students in mechanical engineering.

BY T. BAKER,

LONDON: JOHN WEALE, 1852.

Elements of mechanism

INTRODUCTION.

Is the first part of this work will be found all the most approved elementary or simple parts of mechanism that the ingenuity of man has suggested, in the past and present age, for multiplying power - for increasing and diminishing speed - for changing the direction of motion - for producing straight from curvilinear motions and vice versa - also irregular from regular motions, and vice versa. The several subjects are accompanied by the methods of calculating and comparing the powers, velocities, Ac, of the different parts of each combination. The fundamental principles of these methods are derived from Baker's Principles and Practice of Statics and Dynamics in Mr. Weale's Series, with examples wrought out by common arithmetic; so that they may be understood without a knowledge of the higher branches of the mathematics. The more abstruse parts of the theory of variable motion are taken from Professor Willises Mechanism (by the Professor's kind permission): to which great work, and to Buchanan’s work on the same subject, I am indebted for the greater part of the elementary forms of mechanism, which are duly acknowledged in the course of the work.

In this part of the work, besides the elementary combinations, several complete machines, of the more simple kinds, are also described, either with or without reference to their specific purposes.

The second part treats generally of machines, and parts of machines, designed for specific purposes; a great many of which are of a novel and ingenious character, and made a conspicuous part in the mechanical department of the Great Exhibition of 1851.

The first part is divided into eight, and the second part into ten, chapters ; of each of which it will be proper to say a little.

PART I.

In Chapter I. of this part are given, the definitions and fundamental principles of calculation, adapted to machinery.

Chapter II. treats of the lever, link-work, cranks, and several of their combinations.

Chapter III. embraces the various combinations of wheel-work; the arrangement of the teeth of wheels; with the ingenious and expeditious method of forming the flanks of the teeth by the Odontograph, invented by Frofessor Willis,

Chapter IV . treats of the forms of gudgeons, couplings of axles, contrivances for the engagement and disengagement of machinery, &c. &c. The nature and theory of the pulley, and motion by means of wrapping connectors, as cords, straps, chains, &c., conclude this subject.

Chapter V. includes the most approved specimens of variable motion by the rolling contact of wheels.

In Chapter VI. various methods of producing intermittent and reciprocating motion are given.

Chapter VII. treats of the inclined plane, the screw, the wedge, and the camb, with several of their combinations.

In Chapter VIII. the arrangements of the escapements of clocks and watches, and the nature of the pendulum, are explained.

PART II.

In Chapter I. of this part the most approved regulators And accumulators of motion are described.

In Chapter II. are described various arrangements of mechanism for modifying motion, as to change a continuous reciprocating motion into a continuous circular motion, and the reverse; with the theory of parallel motion, as given by Professor Willis and Mr. Harm.

In Chapter III. are given the ordinary machines used in the common arts of construction, and for domestic purposes.

In Chapter IV. are described all the most approved hydraulic machines, from the common suction-pump to Appold’s centrifugal pump which was so conspicuous in the Great Exhibition of 1851; and the various kinds of water-wheels, including the turbine, with the methods of calculating their powers; also the most approved marine screw-propellers; with the theory of the motion of water in pipes, rivers, and open canals

In Chapter V. Mr. Joseph Whitworth’s self-acting lathes, are described.

Chapter VI. treats of machines for carding, spinning, flax-dressing; most of which formed an attractive part of the Great Exhibition of 1851.

Chapter VII. describes the various mechanical arrangements of the steam-engine, with two specimens of novel machines of this kind.

In Chapter VIII. are given descriptions of machinery for refining sugar,

Chapter IX. treats of the friction of machinery, and of labouring forces; with the nature of the resistance of friction on railways and common roads,

Chapter X. describes the process and mechanism for Manufacturing brown salt glazed stoneware and Bristol ware, as practised at Vauxhall Pottery, by Messrs, Singer, Green, and Co.

A more complete detail of the several subjects will be found in the table of contents.

CONTENTS.

PART I.
- ELEMENTS OF MECHANISM.
- THE LEVER AND LINK-WORK.
- WHEEL-WORK, PRODUCING MOTION BY ROLLING CONTACT.
- ON PITCH-THE TEETH OP WHEELS. GUDGEONS-COUPLINGS OF AXLES. HOOKE'S JOINT. FRICTION WHEELS. ENGAGEMENT AND DISENGAGEMENT OF MACHINERY. CONCENTRIC WHEELS. PULLEYS. PRODUCING MOTION BY WRAPPING CONTACT BY MEANS OF CORDS,CHAINS, STRAPS, ETC.
- VARIABLE MOTION BY THE ROLLING CONTACT OF WHEELS.
- INTERMITTENT AND RECIPROCATING MOTION BY WHEELS.
- THE INCLINED PLANE, THE SCREW, THE WEDGE, AND CAMB, PRODUCING MOTION BY SLIDING.
ESCAPEMENTS, PENDULUMS, ETC.

PART II.
- MECHANISM, AND PARTS OF MECHANISM, DESIGNED TO EFFECT PROPOSED OBJECTS.
- MECHANISM FOR MODIFYING MOTION.
- MACHINES COMMONLY USED IN THE ARTS OF CONSTRUCTION, AND FOR DOMESTIC PURPOSES.
- PUMPS AND OTHER HYDRAULIC MACHINES.
- SELF-ACTING LATHES FOR SLIDING, SCREWING, AND SURFACING; ALSO SELF-ACTING PLANING, SHAPING, SLOTTING, PUNCHING, AND SHEARING MACHINES.
- MACHINES FOR CARDING, SPINNING. ETC.
- THE STEAM ENGINE.
- MACHINERY FOR THE MANUFACTURING AND REFINING SUGAR.
- ON THE FRICTION OF MACHINERY AND LABOURING FORCES.
- ON THE PRODUCTION OF BROWN SALT-GLAZED STONE-WARE AND BRISTOL WARE.